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Forest Resources of Northeast India | Vegetation of Northeast India

Forests of Northeast India are rich in biodiversity and timber, while the cultural complexity of the region is extraordinary. Climate, physiography and soils of Northeast India have provided favorable conditions for luxuriant growth of natural vegetation.

The northeast region of India supports almost all types of vegetation from cultivated plains to grasslands, meadows, marshes, swamps, scrub-forests, tropical forests, temperate forests and alpine vegetation. In addition, the region also has a number of sacred groves or forests.[1]

Northeast India is a meeting ground of temperate east Himalayan flora, palaeo-arctic flora of the Tibetan highlands, and wet evergreen flora of Southeast Asia and Yunnan, forming a bowl of biodiversity.

Forest of Northeast India
PC-Nadir Hashmi/CC 2.0

Forest Resources of Northeast Indian States

Forest is a precious resource given by nature. Forest supplies us raw materials for construction of buildings, bridge, ships, railway tract, boat etc.

Northeast India has gained worldwide attention for its diverse and extensive forest cover. Forests of this region are unique, both in terms of their structure and species composition.

Arunachal Pradesh occupies a significant place and is a hot spot for the evolution of flora in Northeast India and for speciation.

The Brahmaputra valley, sandwiched between eastern Himalayan in the north, and the Garo/Khasi/Jaintia and Mikir/Cachar/Barail hills ranges in the south, are meeting grounds of the temperate east Himalayan flora and the wet evergreen and wet deciduous floristic elements.

The Khasi-Jaintia hills function as a corridor of the Southeast Asia floristic elements into the Indian subcontinent through the Arakan arc. [2]

The altitudinal variation and rainfall patterns of southwest and northeast monsoon play a significant role in the development of ecological niches in this region of India.

Some of the economically very important trees found in Northeast India is Agaru, sal, neem, Champa, tea and bamboo.

Agaru or Agar has become a rare plant now. In older days people used to prepare thin long sheets out of its wood for writings. (Taher & Ahmed)

Recorded Forest Areas (RFAs) in States and UTs

Sl. No.

State/ UT

Geographical

Area (GA)

RFA (in different categories)

Total RFA

(2019)

%

of GA

RF

PF

Unclassed

Forests

1

Arunachal Pradesh

83,743

10,589

9,779

31,039

51,407

61.39

2

Assam

78,438

17,864

0

8,968

26,832

34.21

3

Manipur

22,327

1,467

4,171

11,780

17,418

78.01

4

Meghalaya

22,429

1,113

12

8,371

9,496

42.34

5

Mizoram

21,081

4,483

0

1,158

5,641

26.76

6

Nagaland

16,579

234

0

8,389

8,623

52.01

7

Sikkim

7,096

5,452

389

0

5,841

82.31

8

Tripura

10,486

4,175

2

2,117

6,294

60.02

Source- Forest Survey of India


Forest Resources of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is known as the land of the rising sun with reference to its position as the easternmost state of India.

Situated on the North-Eastern tip of the country, the state of Arunachal Pradesh is a part of Eastern Himalayan Ranges located between 260 28’ to 290 30, N latitudes and 910 30’ to 970 30’ E longitudes. Arunachal Pradesh occupies the largest area (83.743 Sq. Km) in the north-eastern region of India and consists of mountainous ranges sloping to the plains of Assam.

Arunachal Pradesh is a forest rich State in Eastern Himalayan region of the country. The State has about 20% species of the country's fauna, about 4,500 species of flowering plants, 400 species of pteridophytes, 23 species of conifers, 35 species of bamboos, 20 species of canes, 52 species of Rhododendron and more than 500 species of orchids. 

As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Arunachal Pradesh belong to 11 Type Groups which are further divided into 23 different Forest Types.

No. of species found in Arunachal Pradesh 

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

110

Shrub

435

Herb

192

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Arunachal Prades

Forest Type

% of Forest Cover

1B/C1 Assam Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (Dipterocarpus)

2.13

1B/C2a Kayea Forest

0.36

1/2S1 Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub

0.20

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

3.70

2B/C1a Assam Alluvial Plains Semi-Evergreen Forest

4.84

2B/1S1 Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen Forest

6.60

2B/2S2 Eastern Alluvial Secondary Semi-Evergreen Forest

3.44

2B/C1b Eastern Sub-Montane Semi-Evergreen Forest

3.32

3/1S2b Terminalia-Duabanga Forest

1.24

3C/C3/2S2 (Secondary Euphorbiaceous Scrub)

0.00

8B/C1 East Himalayan Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

24.35

8B/C2 Khasi Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

0.04

9/C2 Assam Sub-Tropical Pine Forest

0.59

9/C2/DS1 Assam Subtropical Pine Savannah

0.08

11B/C1 East Himalayan Wet Temperate Forest

22.92

12/C1f Low-Level Blue Pine Forest (P. wallichiana)

0.71

12/C3a East Himalayan Mixed Coniferous Forest

1.95

12/DS3 Himalayan Temperate Pastures

0.22

13/C6 Eastern Himalayan Dry Temperate Coniferous Forest

2.19

14/C2 East Himalayan Sub-Alpine Birch/Fir Forest

13.46

15/C1 Birch/Rhododendron Scrub Forest

0.21

15/C3 (Alpine Pastures)

6.73

16/C1 Dry Alpine Scrub

0.63

Plantation/TOF

0.09

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources of Assam

Assam the second largest State in North Eastern India, is situated south of the Eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak river valleys.

The State has a geographical area of 78,438 sq km, which is 2.39% of the geographical area of the country.

The State has a subtropical climate and the annual rainfall ranges between 1,500 mm to 3,800 mm and the annual temperature varies from 5°C to 32°C. Brahmaputra is a major river draining the State.

Assam is the land of enchanting aesthetic beauty with lush green hills, pastures, tea gardens, river plains and wilderness. Running and cascading through the entire length and breadth of the State are mighty rivers; the Brahmaputra in the north and the Barak in the south, which along with their tributaries nourish a wide range of precious flora and fauna in the State.

As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests of Assam belong to seven Forest Type Groups further divided into 25 different Forest Types.

Assam can boast of possessing a host of endangered and rare mammals, avian and amphibian species. These include pigmy hog, hispid hare, white-winged wood duck and great Indian hornbill among many others.

The recorded forest area of Assam is 26,832 sq km accounting for 34.21% of its geographical area. According to their legal status, Reserved Forests constitute 66.58% and Unclassed Forests 33.42% of the total forest area.

The protected area network of Assam includes 5 National Parks and 18 wildlife sanctuaries covering an area of 0.40 million ha constituting 4.98% of the geographical area. The state has three Tiger Reserves, namely Kaziranga, Manas and Nameri. Kaziranga National Park and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary are in the list of World Heritage sites.

Forest type mapping using satellite data has been undertaken by the Forest Survey of India with reference to Champion and Seth Classification. As per this assessment, the state has 18 forest types belonging to five forest type groups viz Tropical Wet Evergreen, Tropical Semi-Evergreen, Tropical Moist Deciduous, Tropical Dry Deciduous and Sub Tropical Pine Forests.

The estimated tree cover in the state is 1,564 sq km which is1.99% of the geographical area of the state. Forest cover in the state is 27,673 sq km that is 35.28% of the geographical area of the state. Thus the Forest and tree cover in the state is 29,237 sq km which is 37.27% of the geographical area.

No. of species found in Assam

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

143

Shurb

149

Herb

153

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Assam

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

1B/C1 Assam Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (Dipterocarpus)

3.56

1B/C3 Cachar Tropical Evergreen Forest

3.11

1B/C2a Kayea Forest

0.76

1B/C2b Mesua Forest

0.02

2B/C2 Cachar Semi-Evergreen Forest

37.75

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

1.60

2B/C1a Assam Alluvial Plains Semi-Evergreen Forest

3.01

2B/1S1 Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen Forest

1.25

2B/2S2 Eastern Alluvial Secondary Semi-Evergreen Forest

1.23

2B/2S1 (Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub)

0.28

2B/1S2 Syzygium Parkland

0.07

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

17.92

3C/C2d(iv) App. Kamrup Sal

2.71

3C/C1b(I) East Himalayan Upper Bhabar Sal

2.37

3C/2S1 Northern Secondary Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

1.93

3C/1S1 Low Alluvial Savannah Woodland (Salmalia albizzia)

0.05

3C/C1a(ii) Khasi Hill Sal

0.12

3/1S2a Terminalia-Lagerstroemia

0.01

4D/SS1 Eastern Seasonal Swamp Forest

0.01

4C/FS3 Creeper Swamp Forest

0.00

4D/2S1 (Syzygium Parkland)

0.00

4D/2S2 Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland

0.53

5/1S2 Khair-Sissu Forest

0.08

8B/DS1 (Assam Subtropical Hill Savannah Woodland)

0.04

9/C2 Assam Sub-Tropical Pine Forest

0.41

Plantation/TOF

21.18

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources of Manipur

Manipur, a hilly State in northeastern India, lies between latitude 23°50' N to 25°42'N and longitude 92°59' E to 94°46' E, sharing international border with Myanmar on the eastern side.

It's covering an area of 22,327 sq km, which constitutes 0.68% of the geographical area of the country.

Physiographically, Manipur can be characterized in two distinct physical regions – an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys and the inner area of a flat plain, with associated landforms.

Manipur has a tropical climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 1,200 mm to 2,700mm and the average annual temperature ranges from 14.5°C to 38°C.

The State of Manipur is endowed with rich biodiversity with many endemic flora and fauna. As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forests Types (1968), the forests in Manipur belong to five Forest Type Groups which are further divided into 11 Forest Types.

Out of 126 species of bamboos reported in India, 53 species are found in Manipur. Among the trees, Teak, Pine, Oak, Uningthou (Phoebe spp.) Leihao (Michelia spp.) are the major species.

Forests in Manipur are largely under the community and private ownership. Being a predominantly tribal State lives of rural people residing in hills of the State is dependent on forests in socio-economic and socio-cultural context. Nearly 1,200 species of medicinal plants are reported from the State.

Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 17,418 sq km of which 1,467 sq km is Reserved Forest, 4,171 sq km is Protected Forest and 11,780 sq km is Unclassified Forest.

No. of species found in Manipur

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

43

Shrub

89

Herb

56

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Manipur

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

2B/C2 Cachar Semi-Evergreen Forest

15.39

2B/2S1 (Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub)

7.49

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

7.47

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

24.48

4D/2S2 Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland

0.72

8B/C1 East Himalayan Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

33.69

8B/C2 Khasi Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

2.37

9/C2 Assam Sub-Tropical Pine Forest

3.54

9/C2/DS1 Assam Subtropical Pine Savannah

0.30

11B/C1b Buk Oak Forest

2.88

11B/C2 Naga Hill Wet Temperate Forest

1.30

12/DS1 Montane Bamboo Brakes

0.06

Plantation/ TOF

0.31

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources of Meghalaya

Situated in the North-Eastern part of the country, Meghalaya covers an area of 22,429 sq km, which is 0.68% of the geographical area of the country.

The State lies between 24°58'N to 26°07'N latitude and 89°48' E to 92°51'E longitude and is bordered by Assam in the north and east and shares an international boundary with Bangladesh in the south and west.

The State has three distinct regions namely, Garo Hills, Khasi Hills and Jaintia hills. It falls in the high rainfall region and the average annual rainfall is in the range of 4,000 mm to about 11,500 mm.

The wettest place on the earth Mawsynram is located in the State. The western part of the State is warmer with mean temperature ranging between 12°C to 33°C. The central upland is relatively cooler with mean temperature ranging between 2°C to 24°C.

Meghalaya is a forest rich State. Being a predominantly tribal State, lives of rural people are significantly dependent on forests in socio-economic and socio-cultural contexts.

Unlike other States, forests in Meghalaya are largely under the community and private ownership. Only 1,113 sq km of forests, in Reserved Forests, Protected Forests, National Parks and Sanctuaries are under the direct control of the State Forest Department.

Community and private forests are under the administrative control of the three Autonomies District Councils viz Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Garo Hills. Shifting cultivation is still prevalent in the State.

Deciduous and Evergreen Tropical Forests, Sub-Tropical Semi Evergreen and Sub-Tropical Pine Forests thrive in the State. The abundance of vegetation ranging from Temperate, Sub-Tropical and up to Tropical type are due to diverse topography and variation in rainfall.

Two National Parks, four Wildlife Sanctuaries and 65 Community Reserves constitute the Protected Area network of the State covering 2.22% of its geographical area.

Forests of the State shelters more than 3500 flowering plants, 352 orchids, 40 bamboo species and about 800 medicinal plants resources.

The state is part of the Indo Burma Biodiversity Hotspot of the world. There are about 40 endemic plant species and 75 Threatened plant species found in Meghalaya.

 Amongst its rare species are the insect eating Pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana), Wild citrus (Citrus indica) and Pygmy Lily (Nymphaea tetragona).

The Rhododendron Forest at Shillong Peak is a major attraction for tourist during blooming period

In Meghalaya, sacred groves represent an age old tradition of environmental conservation based on indigenous knowledge, culture and religious beliefs. Sacred Groves originated in Meghalaya since time immemorial much before the advent of Christianity.

Sacred Groves are the tracts of virgin forests that are left untouched by the local inhabitants and are protected by the local people due to their culture and religious beliefs. Sacred groves are relic vegetation of once dominant flora.

They are repositories of our rich biodiversity; they are also the last bastion where the rich culture and the customs of the indigenous people are still preserved.

They are unique feature of Khasi and Jaintia Hills. They are among the few least disturbed forest patches which are serving as the natural treasure house of biodiversity and a refuge for a large number of endemic, endangered and rare taxa. A baseline floristic survey revealed the presence of at least 514 species representing 340 genera and 131 families in these sacred groves.

Sacred groves in Meghalaya are now increasingly coming under threat as the tribal way of life changes. The area under sacred groves is also shrinking and quite a few have been turned into degraded forests. The erosion of traditional values and deterioration of sacred groves in recent times is, however, as a matter of concern.

No. of species found in Meghalaya

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

93

Shrub

176

Herb

42

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Meghalaya

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

1B/C3 Cachar Tropical Evergreen Forest

8.52

1/2S1 Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub

2.95

2B/C1a Assam Alluvial Plains Semi-Evergreen Forest

0.72

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

2.13

3C/C1a (ii) Khasi hill Sal

6.81

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

47.73

8B/C2 Khasi Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

20.43

9/C2 Assam Sub-Tropical Pine Forest

6.99

9/C2/DS1 Assam sub-tropical pine savannah

1.30

Plantation/TOF

2.42

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources Mizoram

Situated in the North-Eastern part of India, Mizoram covers geographical area of 21,081 sq km, which is 0.64% of the geographical area of the country.

The State lies between 21°56'N to 24°31'N latitude and 92°16'E to 93°26'E longitude and shares borders with Tripura in the west, Assam and Manipur in the north.

Mizoram also shares an international borders with Myanmar on the east and Bangladesh in the south and west. Physiographically, the State is comprised of rugged, steep hill ranges and interspersed valleys.

The State has a climate ranging from moist tropical to moist sub-tropical. The annual rainfall ranges between 2,100 mm to 3,500 mm and the annual temperature during winter, 11°C to 24°C and in summer between 18°C to 29°C.

The State has rich flora and fauna including many rare and endemic species of plants and animals. Amongst all the States, Mizoram has the highest area under forest cover in terms of percentage of geographical area.

The forests of the State are under a three tier management viz those owned and controlled by the State, district councils and village councils.

Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Mizoram belong to four Type Groups, which are further divided into six Forest Types.

Tropical wet-evergreen forests of the State have valuable species in the top canopy such as Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Artocarpus chaplasha, Terminalia myriocarpa, Amoora wallichii, Michelia champaca, Mesua ferrea etc. Bamboos occur abundantly in the middle and lower stories in the evergreen forest type, Canes are also present in this type of forest. 27 species of bamboo are reported from the State.

The eastern fringes of the State bordering Chin Hills of Myanmar are higher in elevation and fall under Montane subtropical pine forests. This area is relatively cooler and experiences less annual precipitation.

The common species of montane sub-tropical pine forests include Pinus kesiya, Quercus spp, Castanopsis spp, Schima wallichii, Rhododendron arboreum, Rhus semialata etc.

Mizoram is one of the leading producers of bamboo in India supplying 14% of the country's commercial bamboo.

Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 5,641 sq km of which 4,483 sq km is Reserved Forest and 1,158 sq km is Unclassed Forests.

No. of species found in Mizoram

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

87

Shrub

96

Herb

56

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Mizoram

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

2B/2S1 Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub

0.44

2B/C2 Cachar Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest

30.70

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

37.42

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

30.79

8B/C1 East Himalayan Subtropical Wet Hill Forest

0.04

9/C2 Assam Subtropical Pine Forests

0.61

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources of Nagaland

Nagaland is a North Eastern State covering an area of 16,579 sq km which constitutes 0.50% of the geographical area of the country.

The states lies between 250 10' N to 270 4' N longitude and 930 15' E to 950 6' E longitude and is bordered by Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in the north, and Manipur in the south. It shares the international border in the east with Myanmar.

Physiographically, Nagaland consists of a narrow strip of hilly country running northeast to Southwest and facing the Assam plains to its North and Northwest.

The State is drained by a number of important rivers, of which Barak River is the major river. The annual rainfall ranges between 1,800 mm to 2,500 mm and the annual temperature varies from 21°C to 40°C.

Nagaland is a small State, it has been endowed with a wide variety of forest types on account of its unique geographic location and wide range of physiographic terrain.

As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Nagaland belong to seven Type Groups, which are further divided into 10 Forest Types.

The forest area in Nagaland is limited and therefore the department has purchased land from private owners for Biodiversity Conservation and taking up plantations.

The total land purchased by the department is approximately 192.47 sq km. Forests in Nagaland are largely under the community and private forests.

The Forest Department owns only certain areas classified as Reserved Forests, Protected Forests, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National parks, Nurseries & Botanical Gardens.

The State has started 'Joint Forest Management' program to elicit active participation of villagers in creation, management and protection of plantations.

Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 8,623 sq km of which 234 sq km is Reserved Forest and 8,389 sq km is Unclassed Forests.

One National Park, three Wildlife Sanctuaries and 57 Community Reserves constitute the Protected Area network of the State covering 5.19% of its geographical area.

Dipterocarpousmacrocarpous (Hollong), Shoreaassamica (Makai) ,Rodhodendron Spp. , Mesuaferra (Nahar), are rare and endangered spp. Panaxgensing (Gensing) is found only in Tuensang district at higher altitudes.

It is endangered. Aquilariaagallocha (Agar)is also an endangered species. Rare and Endangered species of Orchids available in Nagaland are as follows, Thunia 1 spp, Arundinariagraminifolia (Bamboo orchid), Renenthera (Red vanda), ,Rhynchostylis (fox tail), Pleoni, Phauis (ground orchid) 2 spp, Paphiopedilum 1 spp, Cymbidium tigrinum 1 spp. The Govt. is taking measures for propagation of conservation and protection of these spp. through different afforestation schemes.

No. of species found in Nagaland

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

56

Shrub

137

Herb

133

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Nagaland

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

1B/C1 Assam Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (Dipterocarpus)

0.61

1/2S1 Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub

4.30

2B/2S2 Eastern Alluvial Secondary Semi-Evergreen Forest

17.55

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

5.09

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

38.44

8B/C2 Khasi Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forest

16.09

9/C2 Assam Sub-Tropical Pine Forest

5.84

9/C2/DS1 Assam Subtropical Pine Savannah

0.17

11B/C2 Naga Hill Wet Temperate Forest

11.32

12/DS1 Montane Bamboo Brakes

0.07

Plantation/TOF

0.52

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India

Forest Resources of Sikkim

Sikkim Situated in the North-Eastern part of the country, the State covers an area of 7,096 sq km, which is 0.22% of the geographical area of the country.

The State lies between 27°04'N to 28°07'N latitude and 88°00'E to 88°55'E longitude and is shares an international border with Nepal in the west, Bhutan in the east and China in the north. On the southern side lies the State of West Bengal.

It is a mountainous State with wide variation in altitudes ranging from 300 m to 8,586 meters. Kangchenjunga, the highest Indian peak and third highest mountain in the world is located in the State. The climate of the State varies from subtropical to tundra.

The annual rainfall ranges between 2,700 mm to 3,200 mm and the annual temperature varies from sub-zero during winter to 28°C during summer.

Sikkim is a forest rich State and vegetation is marked by clear altitudinal zonation. As per the Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Type (1968), the forests in Sikkim belong to six Forest Type Groups which are further divided into 11 Forest Types.

Being a predominantly tribal and hilly State, the lives of the rural people are largely dependent on forests. The State of Sikkim with only 0.22% of the geographical area of the country harbors around one-third of the flowering plants of India.

The flagship 'State Green Mission' program started with avenue plantation for beautification and has transformed into a mass movement.

The State is endowed with rich floral and faunal diversity. Species wise, the State harbors over 4500 flowering plants, 550 Orchids, 36 Rhododendrons, 16 Conifers, 28 Bamboos, 362 Ferns and its allies, 9 Tree Ferns, 30 Primulas, 11 Oaks, over 424 Medicinal plants,

Presently all vacant lands including lands belonging to the monasteries and community lands in the villages are being covered under the green mission. Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 5,841 sq km of which 5,452 sq km is Reserved Forest and 389 sq km is Protected Forest.

No. of species found in Sikkim

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

59

Shrub

35

Herb

29

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage area under different forest types of Sikkim

Forest Type

% of Forest cover

3C/C1a(I) East Himalayan sal

1.85

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed deciduous forest

5.19

8B/C1 East Himalayan Sub-tropical wet hill forest

23.89

11B/C1b Buk Oak Forest

23.04

12/C3a East Himalayan Mixed Coniferous forest

5.90

12/DS1 Montane bamboo Brakes

0.19

14/C2 East Himalayan Sub-alpine birch/fir forest

24.01

15/C1 Birch/ Rhododendron scrub

3.36

15/C3 (Alpine pastures)

3.91

15/E1 Dwarf Rhododendron Scrub

0.30

15/E2 (Dwarf Juniper scrub)

4.96

Plantation/TOF

3.40

Total

100.00

Source- Forest Survey of India


Forest Resources of Tripura

Tripura is located in the North-Eastern region of the country and has an area of 10,486 sq km which is 0.32% of the geographical area of the country.

The State lies between 22 57' N to 24 32 N latitude and 91 o 10' E to 92 20' E longitude and is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west and shares borders with Assam and Mizoram on the east.

Tripura has a Humid Climate and the annual rainfall ranges between 2,250 mm to 2,500 mm and the annual temperature varies from 7°C to 36°C.

Champion & Seth Classification of Forest Types (1968), the forests in Tripura belong to two Forest Type Groups which are further divided into five Forest Types.

The forests in the State are mainly tropical evergreen, semi evergreen, and moist deciduous. Sizeable area is covered with bamboo brakes which virtually form a sub climax resulting from shifting cultivation.

Bamboo plays a very vital role in the economy of the State. The State has taken special initiative in involvement of people in management of forests in territorial Divisions and Wildlife Sanctuaries through formation of 'Joint Forest Management' Committees (JFMCs) and Eco Development Committees (EDCs) respectively.

Recorded Forest Area (RFA) in the State is 6,249 sq km of which 4,175 sq km is Reserved Forest, 2 sq km is Protected Forest and 2,117 sq km is Unclassed Forests.

The Forest Cover in the State is 7,725.59 sq km which is 73.68 % of the State's geographical area.

In terms of forest canopy density classes, the State has 653.51 sq km under Very Dense Forest (VDF), 5,236.19 sq km under Moderately Dense Forest (MDF) and 1,835.89 sq km under Open Forest (OF).

No. of species found in Tripura

Plant Type

Number of Species

Tree

89

Shrub

37

Herb

22

Source- Forest Survey of India

Percentage Area under different forest types of Tripura

Forest Type

% of Forest Cover

2B/C2 Cachar Semi-Evergreen Forest

24.47

2B/2S1 (Pioneer Euphorbiaceous Scrub)

0.01

2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes

7.55

3C/C1b(ii) East Himalayan Lower Bhabar Sal

2.57

3C/C3b East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest

39.89

Plantation/TOF

22.51

Source- Forest Survey of India

To study more about the forest resources of Northeast India some books recommendation given below. These books are also used as references for this article. So, I highly recommend you go through these books. For details click the book title.

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Northeast India located in the extreme northeast corner of the Indian subcontinent with diverse physiography and relief features. In general, the region may be divided into three physiographical regions that are Plateau region, Plain regions and Mountain region.Because of its diversity of physiography the region endowed with rich and varied biophysical environments bounded by hills and mountains on its three sides except a narrow gap in the west.

Barail Range of Assam | North East India Info

The Barail Range is a group of mountain or high ridges and watershed between the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers. The terrain ranges from flat and undulating in the river valleys, to mountainous with steep slopes. Located in Dima Hasao district of Assam a state of India (Latitude: 25° 16' 27" N - Longitude: 93° 20' 51" E)

Black Rice-Nutrition, Recipe & Benefits | Manipuri Black Rice | Forbidden Rice

Black rice is a type of rice that belongs to the Oryza sativa L. species.The rice endosperm, which is translucent with grey to almost black color, turns deep purple when cooked. [1] My first encounter with Black Rice got me very fascinated and curious about this rice. At that time I thought I'm going to cultivate this rice in our own firm land as experiments see how it performed in our agricultural land. We also cultivated Assamese Red Rice (local name is Bao Paddy ) and 10 different varieties of local (native) rice.

Soils Found in Northeast India - Classification, Distribution and Erosion

Northeast India is a place of heavy rainfall, high relative humidity and high temperature cause rapid weathering of rocks. As weathering of surface rocks of the hills and mountains proceeds, the sheet flood caused by heavy rainfall remove the weathered materials and carry them down to the headward steams of the rivers.  The rapidly flowing rivers then carry the sediments, big and small, down to the foothills and plains.