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Karbi Anglong Plateau Region of India | Mikir Hills | North East India Info

Karbi Anglong Plateau or Mikir Hills situated in Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The Karbi Plateau, which is the easternmost part of the north-eastward projection of Gondwanaland lies almost detached from the Meghalayan Plateau due to headward erosion of the Kopili and Dhansiri River and their Tributary’s.

Karbi Anglong Gate

Karbi Plateau- Geography and Physiography

Karbi plateau or Mikir Hills is known oldest landform in Assam. It is pear-shaped and has an area of about 7000 km2.

Its link with the Meghalaya proper is towards the south through a patch of highly denuded and subdued senile terrain.

It has been subjected to extreme weathering and denudation and as a result, resistant sandstones of the Surma series which underlie them have contributed to the characteristic rugged topography with a number of hills purely of relict type. (R.L. Sing 1971)

To the south lie the young folded ranges of North Cachar Hills and to the surrounding lowlands on all sides. The plateau has developed a radial drainage pattern.

However, the central part still remains high with the Rengma Range reigning the east-central landscape. The highest peak is Dambusho (1363m) lies in this region. (Taher & Ahmed 1998)

The Climate of Karbi Plateau

Due to variation in the topography, this hill zone experiences different climates in different parts. The winter commences from October and continues till February. During summer, the atmosphere becomes sultry. The temperature ranges from 6 degrees to 12 degrees and 23 degrees to 32 degree Celcius in summer. The average rainfall is about 2416 mm.

The climate of the region is controlled by the same factors that apply to other parts of Northeast India. The Cherra-Dawki escarpment of Meghalaya and the Barail range obstruct to some extent the south-west monsoon winds coming from the south into the heart of the region.

This provides a rain-shadow effect to the northwestern portion of Dimasa plateau and the Hojai-Lumding area of Nagaon district which constitute the southern part of the Karbi inhabited area, lofty ranges of Arunachal Pradesh protect the Brahmaputra Valley from the cold air masses of the Tibetan region in winter, and in summer they provide a congenital condition for relief rainfall from the south-west monsoon in the Brahmaputra Valley. During the early summer months, a strong ‘trough' develops stretching from the western Gangetic valley up to northern Burma across eastern India, Bangladesh and southern North-East India.

This trough belt attracts the south-westerly winds causing heavy a downpour of rain and consequent check in the ripe of temperature in the summer/pre-monsoon months. The westerly disturbances i.e. the eastward-moving upper air troughs also bring in precipitation in the greater part of the Brahmaputra valley and the low hills flanking it during the late winter season.

The Soil of Karbi Plateau

The process of soil formation in Karbi Anglong is generally slow on a foundation of Pre-Cambrian gneissic rock. The soil cover is shallow over the hill slopes with a thin surface layer of humus and is liable to erosion.

Usually, these soils are red loam. Over the lower slopes with tertiary formations the soil cover is comparatively thicker and rich in organic matters. The plains and the river valleys are dominated by sandy loam soil, which constitutes the best agricultural fields in the district. On the whole, the soils of

The district can be divided into four types:

1. Red loamy soil mixed with clay

It covers about 70% of the area of Diphu sub-division. The soils of the Chenghe-Arnam plateau and the Diphu plateau may be categorized under this group.

2. Sandy and clayey soils

Found in the entire Socheng area located in the southern part of Hamren subdivision.

3. Old alluvium

Found in the western part of Rongkhang plain and also in the extreme northernmost part Diphu sub-division.

4. The sandy and alluvial soils

found in the eastern part of Rongkhang plain, Jamuna valley and also in the Dhansiri valley. Red loam soils are suitable for the production of various types of potatoes, grams and hill paddy (mainly Ahu). Old alluvial soils are suitable for tea plantation, fruits and vegetables. New alluvial soils, are to some extent sandy and have contained acidic character (Phukan1978)

Natural Vegetation and Forest

The district of Karbi Anglong is also rich in natural vegetation and this forms an indispensable part in the life of the Karbis. The natural vegetation of the Karbi Anglong may be classified into the following groups:

a) Semi-evergreen.

b) Tropical deciduous

c) Mixed deciduous, and

d) Grassland

The climatic condition and soil of the district favour the growth of ample vegetation. The alluvial soil having moderate to high rainfall is congenial for the growth of evergreen vegetation. The Nambar area of the Dhansiri river valley is well known for the semi-evergreen vegetation. Red loam soil associated with clay favours the growth of deciduous vegetation.

State Government managed the reserved forests and the District Council looked after only the unclassed forests. From the administrative point, the forest area of Karbi Anglong can be divided into the following divisions viz. the East Division and the West Division. The total area under East Division up to 1990-91 is 3833.39 sq. km. while the total area under West Division is 

The forest area covered is about 4,922.019 sq. km with 14 State Reserve Forest and 17 District Council Reserve Forest in the district. Some important protected forests of Karbi Anglong-

1. Nambar Protected Forest.

2. Dhansiri Protected Forest.

3. Doldoli Protected Forest.

4. Rangkhang Protected Forest.

5. Tutumai Protected Forest.

6. Amreng Protected Forest,

7, Shildharampur Protected Forest.

8. Kaliani Protected Forest.

9. Chelabor Protected Forest.

Places to Visit in Karbi Anglong

1. Diphu Hill Station

It is a busy town located on a hill. There are tourist attractions in and around the town.

2. Akashiganga

65 km away from Diphu, here a stream of water flows down from the high hill. In front of it, there is a Siva temple

3. Dikrut Waterfall

It's a waterfall located on the mountain. Outsiders know it by the name of Bhelughat.

4. Garampani (Hot Spring)

Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary which is home of hoolock gibbon and golden langur. There is hot water spring in here near the National Highway-29 (also AH1).

Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
Myself at Garampani (ignore my face expression)

5. Kaiphlangso

Dolamara vicinity under No. 26 Duarbagroi MAC Constituency in Karbi Anglong and famous for its scenic beauty and bordering the enchanting hills. Outsiders know it as Kakochang falls.

6. Kangthilangso Waterfall

It's a waterfall located in Kangthi village, around 12 km from Denarong (Dengaon).

7. Longsokangthu or Siloni

It is a picnic spot on the bank of a river, surrounded by hills and greenery.

8. Silbheta

It is a picnic spot located at a distance of 37 km from Diphu. The place surrounded by rain forests. Nature built a stone bridge (dyke) with a waterfall is the main attraction of this place.

9. Recreation Park

Recreation Park is a Government-run Recreational cum Medicinal garden. It is a place of attraction for tourists.

Hot Spring of Karbi Anglong
Hot Water Spring (Garampani)

To study more about Karbi Plateau, some books recommendation given below. These books are also used as references for this article. So, I highly recommend you go through these books, for details click the book title.

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